1. Scientific perspective is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is perceived by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are:
Objects are drawn smaller as their distance from the observer increases
The distortion of items when viewed at an angle (spatial foreshortening)
In art, the term "foreshortening" is often used synonymously with perspective, even though foreshortening can occur in other types of non-perspective drawing representations
The Holy Trinity / "Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors" (1425-27/28) - Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence by Masaccio or Tommaso Cassai
2. Rusticated masonry is squared-off and left with a more or less rough surface, with a deep "V" or square joint or with finished flanking corners that emphasize the edges of each block. Rustication gives a texture which contrasts with smooth ashlar masonry. Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above.
The rustication of Bram ante’s "House of Raphael" is reinterpreted by Playfair for a courtyard in the Old College, University of Edinburgh, 1817.
3. Colossal order is an order whose columns or pilasters span two (or more) stories. The colossal order is also known as the giant order. Used in the Louvre in Paris, France.
4. Sacra conversazione - sacred conversation refers to a depiction of the Madonna and baby Jesus with the saints. It replaced earlier hieratic triptych or polyptych formats with compositions of figures interacted within a unified perspectival space. Early examples are by Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi.
5. Neo-Platonic philosophy is a school of religious and mystical philosophy that was founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. The term was first coined by Thomas Taylor, in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads. Neo-Platonist considered them simply "Platonists". Theorists and later philosophers determined that the neo-Platonist were further developed in there theories and turned it into a philosophical religion which is why they were given the name neo-Platonists rather then just Platonists. One of the religious believes was based off of Plato’s theory of forms. The theory states that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only a shadow of the real world. It was also very closely related to Christianity. The Italian renaissance accepted Nicholas Cusanus, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, the Medici, Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli and later Giordano Bruno as Neo-Platonists.
6. Why did the Renaissance begin in Florence? On the most basic level what does 'renaissance' mean?
The Renaissance is French for “rebirth”. It was a cultural movement that started in Florence and spread to the rest of Europe. It focused on classical sources, the rise of courtly and “papal” patronage, as well as the discovery of perspective in painting, and advancements in science.
The Renaissance is best remembered by its artistic achievements and the term coined as the ‘Renaissance man’ such as Raphael, Leonardo di Vinci and Michelangelo.
Many theories have been discussed as to what characterizes the renaissance and why it originated in Florence, but it is undeniable the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at this time including its political structure and the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici had a definite impact on this century’s cultural rebirth.
7. What role did the Medici family play in the Renaissance?
The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family that produced three popes including Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI), as well as numerous Florence like Lorenzo il Magnifico. Lorenzo was also a patron of some of the most famous works of renaissance art, and later members of the French and English royalty. The Medici monopolized on the local government and led in the countries humanism and cultural patronage.
The Medici Bank was also one of the most prosperous and most respected in Europe. Which made the family one of the wealthiest European families and assisted in lifting their political power? There family also started the double entry bookkeeping system in their bank’s accounting systems.
8. Who designed the dome for the Florence cathedral? What are three unique inventions or ideas he used in order to construct this masterpiece?
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore also known as Duomo was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. The famous cathedral’s dome is noted for having exterior facing of polychrome marble panels that are green and pink border by more white polychrome marble panels.
The 42 meter wide space originally had a wooden dome, built by Arnolfo di Cambio. The building of a stone cupola over the chancel posed many technical problems, but Arte della Lana worked to over come them first by holding a design competition for a new dome and cupola. The two main competitors were Lorenzo Ghiberti (famous for his work on the "Gates of Paradise" doors at the Baptistery) and Filippo Brunelleschi with Brunelleschi who eventually won the competition.
Brunelleschi drew his inspiration from the Roman Pantheon, except he built his original model out of brick and wood which caused a lot of trouble for those who were put in charge of erecting the dome. Brunelleschi's solutions for those troubles were ingenious such as his octagonal design of the double-walled dome, which rests on a drum and not on the roof itself, which allows the entire dome to be built without the need for scaffolding from the ground. The dome also didn’t have external support or lateral thrusts at the base of the dome so Brunelleschi used horizontal tension chains of wood and iron to offset the tension and weight of the dome.
Brunelleschi also had to invent special hoisting machines for hoisting the millions of large stones. These specially designed machines and brilliant masonry techniques were Brunelleschi's spectacular contribution to architecture. The ability to transcribe a circle on a cone face within the innermost double-shelled wall makes the self-sustaining "horizontal" arch construction possible, since geometrically, a circular plan is needed for such an erection.
9. What did Filippo Brunelleschi believe was the secret of good architecture?
Brunelleschi believed the secret to good architecture lay in creating "the right proportions."
For the following artworks give their materials, artist name and content [explain the meaning of the artifact]:
10. "The Tribute Money" #15.17 is located in the Brancacci Chapel and is the most famous painting in the chapel. It depicts figures of Jesus and Peter shown in a three part narrative. The painting, largely attributed to Masaccio, represents the story of Peter and the tax collector from Matthew 17:24-27. The left side shows Peter getting a coin from the mouth of a fish and the right side shows Peter paying his taxes. The importance of the painting lies also in its depiction of Jesus with human features, and at the same height of the disciples, with a revolutionary rejection of the "hierarchical perspective" of the former treatments of similar themes.
11. "Gates of Paradise" #15.22 The Gates of Paradise is from Battistero di San Giovanni the east doors designed in 1425 by Ghiberti these had ten rectangular Gothic quatrefoil panels depicting scenes from the Old Testament. Ghiberti employed the recently discovered principles of perspective to give depth to his compositions. Each panel depicts more than one episode. In "The Story of Joseph" is portrayed the narrative scheme of Joseph Cast by His Brethren into the Well, Joseph Sold to the Merchants, The merchants delivering Joseph to the pharaoh, Joseph Interpreting the Pharaoh's dream, The Pharaoh Paying him Honor, Jacob Sends His Sons to Egypt and Joseph Recognizes His Brothers and Returns Home. According to Vasari's Lives, this panel was the most difficult and also the most beautiful.
Michelangelo is the one who referred to these doors as fit to be the "Gates of Paradise", and they are still invariably referred to by this name. Giorgio Vasari described them a century later as "undeniably perfect in every way and must rank as the finest masterpiece ever created". Ghiberti himself said they were "the most singular work that I have ever created.”
12. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi #15.33
The Palazzo Medici, also called the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi for a later family that acquired it, is a Renaissance palace located in Florence, Italy.
The palace was designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de' Medici, and was built between 1444 and 1460.
The Palazzo Medici-Riccardi is known for the majestic stone masonry that includes rustication and ashlar.
13. "David" #15.35
Donatello's original study of the “David” in 1386–1466 was a classical sculpture that lead to his development of classicizing positions such as the contrapposto pose (which is a figure whose weight is shifted to one leg) and subject matter (like the unsupported nude – his second sculpture of David was the first free-standing bronze nude created in Europe since the Roman Empire.)
Donatello was influential on all artists who followed him; perhaps most importantly Michelangelo, whose David was mad in 1500 is also a male nude study. Michelangelo's David is more naturalistic than Donatello's and has greater emotional intensity. Both sculptures are standing in contrapposto.
14. "Battle of the Ten Naked Men" #15.37
The original Battle of the Ten Naked Men was Piero del Pollaiolo’s only surviving engraving. This engraving is noted for taking the Italian print to new levels, and remains one of the greatest prints of the Renaissance.
Masaccio was the man who made this painting famous with his avant garde renaissance style of heroic Proto-Renaissance figures modeling light and shadow. They are the idealized scene of the human figure in a landscape that demonstrates atmospheric perspective and recession in space. The main subject of this painting is the Tribute of Money, a biblical story that had a lot of political significance to Renaissance Florence. The story discusses townsmen understanding it as a plea to pay local taxes and levying for a cities protection.
15. "The Delivery of the Keys"
The Fresco, Delivery of Keys (to St. Peter), is one of Pietro Perugino’s earliest works that originally decorated the Sistine Chapel that Pietro loved.
13. Complete the student information sheet and email it to Mrs. Bang if you have not done so already.
14. Take the 'pretest' if you have not done so already.
Will do soon.